Cystic hyperplasia of breast malignant transformation to alert!

Cystic hyperplasia of breast malignant transformation to alert !What is breast cystic hyperplasia of breast cystic hyperplasia ?Is what causes? Breast cystic hyperplasia which clinical manifestation ?Breast cystic hyperplasia should which examination to make ?Breast cystic hyperplasia can which disease to be complicated by cystic hyperplasia of breast ?Meeting canceration of breast cystic hyperplasia ?How should treat? Overview: what is the breast cystic hyperplasia ?This disease is a common disease of women found in the ~ old female is essentially a kind of physiological hypertrophy and subinvolution insufficiency caused by breast normal structure of disorder in China cystic change less is more with glandular hyperplasia mainly reason called &quot &quot ;breast hyperplasia ;who are collectively referred to as the &quot ( WHO ) ;benign mammary dysplasia &quot ;the disease to malignant transformation of the danger of a normal women increased ~ times clinical symptoms and signs are sometimes confused with breast cancer .
Etiology :breast cystic hyperplasia is what causes ?The etiology of this disease is not clear at present thought and endocrine disorders and mental factors on progesterone secretion decreased estrogen relative increase in the disease are important causes of major breast mesenchymal benign hyperplasia can occur in a gland for weeks Wai and accompanied by ranging from the size of the cyst formation ;also can occur in the gland control and performance for epithelial papillary hyperplasia with milk or cystic dilatation in addition there is a type of hyperplasia of lobular parenchyma .
Symptoms :breast cystic hyperplasia which clinical manifestation ?Outstanding performance to have breast distending pain and mammary tumors ( 1.Breast distending pain ) :common for unilateral or bilateral breast pain or tenderness course for months to years in most patients with periodic pain characteristics premenstrual occurrence or aggravation lessened or disappeared after menstruation must pay attention to the periodic breast pain is the disease of the typical performance but lack this feature can deny lesions existence.
( 2)breast masses: often multiple unilateral or bilateral outside upper quadrant see; size and texture are often vary with the menstrual changes periodically premenstrual mass increases hard texture after mass reduced quality of tough but not hard palpable when checking a palpable mass section size and surrounding structure the organization is unclear in much tenderness and skin and deep tissues without adhesion may be promoting axillary lymph node enlargement .
There are also long course slow development can sometimes be a nipple discharge performance of breast nodules in essence Some cystic expansion size dairy pipe nipple is derived from these cysts green yellow brown or bloody even colorless serous .
Check :breast cystic hyperplasia should which examination to make ?According to the clinical manifestations and signs in the diagnosis of this disease is not difficult but it should be noted that a minority of patients (approximately ~% ) can be malignant transformation of suspicious patients should pay attention to follow-up observation as every month on unilateral and lesions confined person you should be vigilant.
Complications :breast cystic hyperplasia can which disease to be complicated by ?Have become cancerous when there may be short-term rapid growth or texture of hardened mass should be highly suspected its carcinogenesis may necessary to biopsy or suffering from milk of simple resection of intraoperative frozen section investigation into cancer cells should be in breast cancer treatment .
Treatment of breast cystic hyperplasia :how should be treated ?With this disease the occurrence mechanism and causes no exact understanding of current treatment on basic for the symptomatic treatment of partial patient morbidity after several months to years after often ~ spontaneous remission without treatment symptoms more obvious lesions range is wide the patient can bra support breast ;oral medicine or sanction of scattered small saver or% potassium iodide may alleviate symptoms in recent years To similar drugs more products such as Rukuaixiao milk-free asparagine tablets Pingxiao tablets capsule ,spirit of tamoxifen and so on treatment effect is good .
Moreover there are hormonal therapy was combined with androgen therapy for this disease to the inhibition of the estrogenic effects of softening nodules relieve symptoms ;but this treatment has the potential to exacerbate the human hormone imbalance between not only conventional application the symptoms seriously affect the normal work and life of patients before considering take .
Follow-up observation but was found to have short term rapid growth or texture of hardened mass should be highly suspected its carcinogenesis may necessary biopsy or suffering from milk of simple resection of intraoperative frozen section investigation into cancer cells should be according to the differential diagnosis :breast cancer treatment.
Breast cystic hyperplasia is easy which disease to confound with ?If patients with hyperplasia of mammary glands with atypical clinical presentation or no significant premenstrual breast tenderness only manifestations of breast masses especially unilateral single hard lumps and breast fibroadenoma and breast cancer are :(1 )identification of breast hyperplasia and breast fibroadenoma :both see breast lumps of single or multiple chewy texture is the mammary glands of the breast mass mostly bilateral multiple mass size nodular patches or particles A soft texture can also form a hard and tough occasionally unilateral single person but with premenstrual breast tenderness touch painful breast mass and size traits with menstruation and produce periodic change of age of onset with in the youth is much ;breast fibroadenoma of the breast mass mostly unilateral solitary mass were round or oval boundary clear activity degree as tough texture also have multiple person but a breast tenderness or only a mild menstrual breast discomfort without tenderness breast tumor size traits are not due to menstrual cycle changes in patients with age the age to age up to see in breast molybdenum target X-ray film of fibroadenoma of the breast is often shown as a round or oval uniform density in the shadow and its unique circular transparent halo can also be used as an important basis for differential diagnosis .
( 2)breast hyperplasia and breast cancer :both see breast mass but the mammary glands of the breast mass texture ,soft or medium hardness mass with multiple bilateral multiple size may not be as nodular piece of lumpy or granular activity and skin and surrounding tissue without adhesion of tumor size characters often vary with the menstrual cycle and emotional changes and slow growth in mass found in Young female; breast cancer breast tumor with a relatively hard some hard as stone mass mostly unilateral solitary mass can be circular oval or irregular can grow to a very poor activity with skin and surrounding tissue adhesion mass associated with the menstrual cycle and mood changes nothing in a short period of time can increase quickly found in in older women.
Other :prevention of breast hyperplasia should keep stable mood optimistic and cheerful life work and rest to achieve full and regular arrangement of menstrual irregularity to timely treatment after delivery for lactation on their children an
d themselves are good for the early discovery of breast hyperplasia can often be breast self examination for breast hyperplasia should attach great importance to early examination of early detection of early treatment .

Prevention and treatment of scapulohumeral periarthritis diet seven

When the Lamb Soup when the sweep, Codonopsis, Radix Paeoniae Alba Xiong, each 10 grams, 15 grams each mulberry, notopterygium, licorice 5 grams, 50 grams of lamb, mutton seasoning amount. Clean cut, the medicine cloth, water with the stewed mutton cooked to, to charge, add salt, MSG, chili, onion ginger seasoning, boiling ingestion.
Qi and chicken 30 grams Astragalus, when the sweep 20 grams, spring chicken 1, ginger, salt. The spring chicken slaughter to hair and internal organs after the wash, and then, when the sweep of Astragalus, ginger wash add chicken stomach into the sand pot, add appropriate amount of water and salt, with small fire stew in 2 hours, chicken soup, 3 days 1 agent.
When Saul blood round egg soup, chicken when the whole sweep round each 15 grams, woody, Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae, Radix Paeoniae Rubra each 10 grams, 20 grams of mulberry, egg 1. The egg and the drug to be boiled together, eggs cooked peeled and cook for 5 ~ 10 minutes, fresh egg soup, daily 3 times, each time 1.
Fugui trotters soup tablets 10 grams, 10 grams of mulberry twig, 30 grams, 15 grams of notopterygium, pig 1, seasoning food. To pig hair miscellaneous clean chop, the medicine cloth, water with stewed trotters cooked to, to charge, add salt, MSG, pepper and other seasonings, boiling ingestion.
When Saul two branches porridge when sweeping, cassia twig Ramulus Mori 10 grams each, 30 grams, 100 grams of rice. The potion decoct juice, increase of riceCook for the gruel ingestion, 2 times daily.
Mulberry jujube porridge mulberry 30 grams, jujube 10, rice 50 grams. Mulberry Twig Decoction plus rice, jujube porridge, 2 times a day, for dinner, take root kudzu barley porridge. It 30 grams, 15 grams of cassia twig, coix seed 30 grams, rice 60 grams, amount of salt.
The kudzu root, cassia twig and suitable amount of water to boil for 30 minutes to slag and juice, then the Coix seed, rice into the medicine juice, boil Simmer slow boil rotten rice porridge cooked with salt to taste, 2 clothes, daily 1 agent.


これは 腎臓の民間療法、捄ました私の友人に命を、私の友人はリューマチまきぞえにする各臓器、特に腎臓が大きな被害を受け、再開発が尿毒症、北京協和病院は何かいい方法もない。帰ってから友達この民間の処方を彼に使った(病気になった)、どうせ乱投医食べても食べない悪い悪い結果が現れた、奇跡を食べ、三日時にむくみの足から五日後に腫れが引いて、更に明らかになった。今はもうすっかり治った。60グラムピーナッツ、大きいナツメ60グラム(乾棗が良い)を先にピーナッツ煮え大きいナツメを放して一緒にゆでて、毎日一回、相当の毎日の食事を、ダシまで一緒に食べ(美味しい)、腎臓を補ってベスト。
と腎関係の病を使ってもいい。五穀加大棗,勝過靈芝草若要皮膚好,粥裏加大棗, result大きいナツメ、色の赤、肉質、飹満、核小や無核、味甜者は良い。民間に「毎日食べて大きいナツメ、靑春は老」「一日十個の棗、一生老けて見えない”、“五穀ナツメ、マンネンタケに勝り」、「お肌にいいなら、お粥にナツメの」などと、は大げさだが、常に大きいナツメの説明食用健康に有益だ。ここにちょっとご紹介し大きいナツメの養生の秘方:relationresult中高年の人の好みの虚弱、食欲不振、消化不良で、体のだるさ、体がだるくて、大便をする沼などの症状者、大きいナツメの10枚、山芋10グラム、蓮子10グラム、米100グラム、役に立つ息の健脾臓、補って虚フィットネスの効果。


慢性腎炎 フルネームは慢性腎小毬腎炎、多種の原因で慢性腎小毬病変、多く会いに成人。relationresultこの 病患者はほとんど伏在発症、少数は急性腎炎病状が遷延もっと、発展してきた。臨床の態度を程度の蛋白尿や血尿(顕微鏡で観察すると、高血圧、むくみ、腎機能障害。よく4タイプ:relationresult1 .普通型。中等程度の蛋白尿尿検査、澱赤血球が多いし筦型、常に軽度あるいは中等の程度の水腫を伴って、中くらいの血圧が高く、腎機能障害、夜尿が伴う。多数がなく、腰の酸っぱい、食を減らして、あるいは貧血。relationresult2 .
腎臓病型。は普通型の表現があり、大量の蛋白尿と明らかに水腫。relationresult3 .高血圧型。は普通型の表現が、血圧持続性、中等度上昇を特徴があり、特に低圧(拡張期血圧)上昇。relationresult4 .急性発作。病人は緩和期や、比較的安定した場合には、「チェーン毬菌、他の細菌やウイルスの感染や、疲労など、寒さ、l-5日急性発作を引き起こし、臨床表現類似急性腎炎。relationresult凡そ 1年以上の蛋白尿を伴って、血尿や高血圧、むくみ、腎機能障害の患者を排除し、他の慢性腎臓病や腎小毬炎症(例えば慢性腎盂腎炎、係統性紅斑性狼瘡など)、診断慢性腎炎。relationresult慢性腎炎 の病因はまだ不足を明確に認識。部分の患者は、急性腎炎遷延愈えない1年以上に達し、慢性。大部分の患者が原因不明、他の細菌やウイルスや寄生虫などの感染が関係している。慢性腎炎遷延愈えない原因により、長期の存在と原因(例えば病巢だけ治療あるいは繰り返し感染など)や免疫機能が正常に関する患者自身。relationresult予防 :relationresult1 .
防除急性腎炎がいるから15m20%の慢性腎炎患者は、急性腎炎遷延発展してきたので、積極的に予防と治療の急性腎炎、慢性腎炎を発症する可能性を減らすことができて。relationresult2 .さまざまな感染を予防。慢性腎炎の発症、細菌、ウイルスや寄生虫などの感染が原因の多種の疾病について、例えば風邪を引いて、咽頭炎、扁桃腺炎、慢性扁桃腺炎、支气筦炎、マラリア、皮膚などの病気の予防疖肿。積極的にこれらの疾患も切った慢性腎炎のいくつかのもと。これらの病気が発生した場合は、徹底的な治療以绝后患。relationresult3 。慎重に薬。たくさんの薬物損害腎臓、そういう類の薬が必要な時には、軽々しく使って、万一の時には、短期の少量科壆応用、これらの薬は:二塩化水銀、四塩化炭素、サルファ剤製剤、バルビタール類、二性マイシンB、多コリスチン、先鋒マイシン、カナマイシン、ネオマイシンやグリセオフルビンなどがあります。また、-酸ヒドラジッド、ストレプトマイシン、ゲンタマイシンなど、腎臓も一定の損害は、慎重に使う。relationresult4 .
防除生物毒素中毒。一部の生物毒素ともなる慢性腎炎の原因のため、毒蛇や蜂、さそり咬傷防止などの昆虫に刺さっていた。もし噛まれ、刺され、油断せず、引き合い、直ちに薬、拡散防止毒素。relationresult自信に満ち5 .リハビリ。慢性腎炎の薬物治療効果はまだ満足して、そのため病気になってから、情緒悲観、さらに期待して、このような気持ちを速やかに派遣。一部の病気僟年ないし僟十年な人、持久で合理的な自己療養、協力薬物の治療は、病気防变だけではなく、良く病状の発展を制御して、しかもが好転し、さらに基本的に回復して、長期の正常な仕事と生活を維持する。これらの患者の経験によれば、恒心があり、自信があって、慢性腎炎は恐ろしくありませんて、逆に、もし悲しみ不良の精神を刺激し、かえって体の抵抗力が低下し、病状の悪化につながる。relationresult6 .
休みに注意して、適切な運動です。病気になって、休みに注意して、は病気のケアの原則。しかし、滅多に活動させてしまう体質降下、抵抗力低下に不利に、リハビリと病気の程度は、合理的に手配休みと体力で活動。一般的に、目嶮や顔全体、下肢限りがむくみ、や血圧上昇(拡張期血圧を明らかに13.3キロパスカル者)寝て休むべき;水腫明らかではありません、拡張期血圧を超えない13.3乾パ、目立った、体がだるくて、腰の酸っぱい症状、飲食の保全の多数はまだ良いですに従事するべきで、一定の手軽な仕事も含め、ほどほど体力活動します;もしならば病状、軽い無明らか水腫、血圧は高くなくて、普通の情況のよいが、ただ繰り返し登場する蛋白尿や軽度筦型で、避けて強い体力活動のかたわら、健康と正常な人と同じように仕事と勉強壆。とにかく、過度に減少活動や不適当に活動が多すぎて、体の回復にも不利。relationresult7 .
食調理。慢性腎炎患者の飲食原則と急性腎炎のようで、埰消化、富栄養、多くビタミン、低塩食、視症情が多い食またはコントロール卵白の類、適度な取水。relationresult8 .腎区透熱性。現代医学壆校術は腎区透熱性の器械と治療方法。腎区透熱性腎血の量を増加することができ、加速水液排泄します。、たるみ腰の筋肉、有利に患者の症状軽減可能。次の方法を温湿布を自分に達し、腎区透熱性目的:湯たんぽでパッドあおむけに腰から、30-40分を腰からあたたかい感があっていい。relationresult9 節制性交。relationresult10 .
食薬の予防。relationresultドクダミ60g( 1)、水を煎じ、毎日1剤、服半年。検査確認ドクダミが機体の免疫力の作用を高め、一部報道によると、長期連用ドクダミは症状が消えて。relationresult( 2)大鯉1尾に内臓、行かない鱗甲、ニンニクを埋めて鱼腹花びらは、紙に包んで、線で縛定、外黄通をまとって、於蛍火で炭化水素熟を紙粘土、淡食魚、ニンニクを食べ1日。relationresult( 3)10繭子だけ、水を煎じ、毎日1度、5日を1コース。
relationresult( 4)トウモロコシ、スイカの皮、冬瓜の皮、赤小豆適量、スープを作って世代のお茶、飲用を続ける。relationresult( 5)スッポン肉500グラム、ニンニク60グラム、砂糖、白酒の適量、水の鈍い火食。relationresult( 6)厚い皮柑3の後、炭化水素をつぶして汁を取って、お湯冲服、毎日2度、服7日。relationresult( 7)裏芋1000グラム、黒糖250グラム、サトイモ切片をきれいに洗って、鍋に燃える置いて灰研の最後と砂糖と均等で、毎回30グラム、毎日服3度。

Please be disease pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment principles, methods of treatment, clinical thin

Path ,unique experience ,typical case and other aspects of the experience – reply card ,you hook form ,original ,reproduced ,comments ,pictures can be, emphasizing close to clinical ,practical ,highlight the individual unique experience ,where respondents are given a certain amount of money or the contribution award extra points .
Cervical vertebra disease to modern clinical frequently-occurring disease ,common disease ,its pathogenesis pathology and clinical manifestation of one one lists ,but I put forward a viewpoint :the disease in addition to consider TCM rheumatism, arthralgia ,WM bone hyperplasia ,cervical facet dislocation and other factors must be considered ,because Yat pathogenic .
This paper introduces Anhui old doctor of traditional Chinese Medicine Zhang Mr. Kingsland row plum cervical exercises : indications: nerve root cervical spondylosis of vertebral artery cervical disease .
Method ;sitting posture ,hands on the table ( I think armchair better — watch Xinglin note ) ,and his eyes with the tip of the nose ,to replace the baton ,like a conductor beat like rotary swing slow sway ,ideas, draw a horizontal 8 charactersin front ,amplitude is bigger is better, every day 1-2 to dothis ,each row of 10-20 times,the first designated 8 characters,and paddled vertical 8 characters,alternate with petals ,the final formation of 4plum blossomshape ,better effect .
Cervical spondylotic myelopathy taboo .Cervical disease is due to degeneration of cervical intervertebral disc ,cervical bone hyperplasia caused by a series of clinical symptoms of the syndrome .
Cervical vertebra disease can be divided into cervical ,spinal cord ,nerve root type ,vertebral artery type ,sympathetic nerve type and the other type ,clinical manifestation of neck ,shoulder and arm ,upper back and chest pain in the shoulder ,arm numbness ,muscle atrophy ,and even paralysis of limbs .
Can occur at any age ,with over 40 years of age in the elderly .The disease has a high incidence, treatment for a long time ,so easy to relapse after treatment with pole .Cervical spondylosis is a variety of the root causes of the disease ,the degenerative lesions is a long ,slow process ,not a cold day .
Therefore ,37 Cmedical network to remind you to pay attention to early exercise and cervical disease prevention and health care ,only early detection ,treatment ,in order to have a healthy life !Cervical spine disease is a kind of strain degeneration disease ,with long neck flexion moving on .
Severe repression can lead to upper limb nerve root or to the head of the vertebral artery caused by arm means acid palsy pain or dizziness ,and entrapment neuropathy of the lower central — spinal cord ,and generating body weakness .
The lesion is difficult to reverse ,but may make some preventive measures to avoid it continues to worsen . summary vertebral disease is due to degeneration of cervical intervertebral disc ,cervical bone hyperplasia caused by a series of clinical symptoms of the syndrome, such as the neck and upper limb pain ,muscle atrophy ,and even paralysis of limbs .
Some people can be expressed as dizziness ,cataplexy ,is recently 20 yearsbegan to get a comprehensive understanding of the disease . diagnostic 1,clinical manifestations and image to see fit ,can be diagnosed .
In 2 ,cervical vertebra disease with typical clinical manifestations, and image study were normal ,except for other patients should pay attention to before the diagnosis of cervical disease .
In 3 ,only the image study demonstrated abnormal ,without clinical symptoms of cervical disease ,should not be diagnosed cervical spondylosis .A diagnosis on the basis of ,respectively: 1 ,neck type :chief head ,neck ,shoulder pain ,abnormal sensation ,accompanied by corresponding tenderness point .
The X-ray films of the upper cervical spine curvature change or display of intervertebral joint instability and performance .The neck should be with the exception of other disorders ( stiff neck ,shoulder ,rheumatic muscular fibrositis ,neurasthenia and other non intervertebral disc degeneration induced by the shoulder and neck pain ) .
In 2 ,the nerve root type : 1. Typical of radicular symptoms ( numbness ,pain ) ,and the range and the cervical spinal nerve innervation area consistent .The pressure test or brachial plexus traction test positive .
The image to see was consistent with the clinical features .The pain point closed without effect ( a clear diagnosis can not do this test ) .With the exception of the cervical lesions ( thoracic outlet syndrome ,tennis elbow ,carpal tunnel syndrome ,periarthritis of shoulder ,elbow tube syndrome ,brachial biceps tendinitis ,two ) upper limb pain caused by the disease .
In 3 ,spinal cord type :clinical emergence of cervical spine strong damage performance .The X-ray films showed the posterior margin of the vertebral body bone hyperplasia ,narrow vertebral pipe .
Image study confirmed the presence of spinal cord compression .With the exception of the amyotrophic spinal bladder patients with sclerosis ,spinal tumor ,spinal cord injury ,secondary adhesive arachnoiditis ,multiple neuritis .
4 ,vertebral artery type of cervical spondylosis of vertebral artery type :diagnostic problems is to be on the research problem .1 havecataplexy attacks .Accompanied by cervical vertigo .The neck rotation test positive .
The radiographs showed segmental instability or atlantoaxial joint hyperosteogeny .The many accompanied by sympathetic symptoms .The exception to eye-derived ,aural vertigo .With the exception of the I segment of vertebral artery ( in 6 cervicaltransverse foramen previous vertebral artery segment ) and III segment of vertebral artery ( the cervical access to the intracranial vertebral artery compression before paragraph ) arising from the basilar artery insufficiency .
The former required operation vertebral artery angiography digital subtraction angiography of vertebral artery ( DSA ) .5 ,sympathetic type : clinical manifestations of dizziness ,vertigo, tinnitus ,hemp ,heartbeat tachycardia ,precordial pain and a series of sympathetic symptoms ,X-ray instability or degenerative vertebral artery angiography negative .
6 ,other type :cervical vertebral body compression before the beak hyperplasia of food and causing dysphagia (via food or barium examination confirmed ) .In two ,cervical disease diagnosis standard has two: ( 1)clinical presentation and radiographic findings were consistent with cervical vertebra disease ,can be diagnosed .
( 2)with a typical cervical vertebra disease clinical manifestations ,and X-ray film has yet to appear abnormal in other diseases ,should be excluded under the premise ,a diagnosis of cervical disease .
But for clinically asymptomatic and signs ,but in the X-ray films appeared abnormal, should not be diagnosed as cervical spondylosis .The X-ray film positive see description .In three ,cervical nerve root disease diagnosis 🙁 1)has a more typical of radicular symptoms ,such as pain ,numbness ,and the scope and carotid nerve area consistent ;( 2)neck pressure test or upper limb traction test positive ;( 3)the X-ray shows the cervical curvature change ,not metastable or osteophyte formation ;( 4)pain point closed without effect ( a clear diagnosis can not do this test ) ;( 5)clinical presentation and radiographic abnormalities seen in the segment is consistent ;( 6)with the exception of cervical ver
tebrae of substantive changes ( such as tuberculosis ,tumor ) .
Thoracic outlet syndrome ,periarthritis of shoulder ,tennis elbow ,triceps brachii – two tenosynovitis ,limb pain mainly disorders .In four ,cervical vertebral artery disease diagnosis 🙁 1)have cataplexy attacks, and accompanied by cervical vertigo ;( 2)neck rotation test was positive ;( 3)radiographs showed the intervertebral joint instability or uncovertebral joint bone hyperplasia ;( 4)with the exception of otogenic or eye vertigo ( ;5)with the exception of the vertebral artery vertebral artery segment and two-stage compression caused by basilar artery insufficiency ;( 6)with the exception of neurosis ,intracranial tumors ;( 7)to diagnose this disease ,especially before the operation ,should be based on vertebral artery angiography .
( 8)the vertebral artery blood flow and EEG only reference value . treatment measures for treatment of cervical disease, mainly non operation therapy .In light of cases, as long as the proper rest, with some anti-inflammatory drugs such as indomethacin ,piroxicam ,can alleviate the symptoms ,supplemented by acupuncture ,physiotherapy ,can get good effect .
For the limitation of the neck ,you can wear a collar .General symptoms in 2weeks toJanuary can ease .If the symptoms are obvious ,it should be used for traction treatment .Cervical traction cervical disease non operation therapy is the main means ,the purpose is to make the traction for cervical spine clearance to get open ,reducing the compression effect is prominent .
But in fact the traction effect is mainly to make the neck rest and to relieve the cervical muscle spasm .Traction seat traction and supine traction two ( Fig. 1 ,2).Seat traction ,a patient sitting in on the orange headband ,with four fixed jaw and occipital ,vertical traction ,with weight as the traction ,weight is 10 ~ 20kg,1~ 2 hourseach time ,1to 2 timesdaily ,depending on the patient response and increase or decrease the traction time and weight ,January as a course of treatment .
Bed traction when patients lie on bed head of the bed ,feet, with four headband with the longitudinal axis of the body forms a 30 degree angle direction of the traction ,weight 3kg ,each pulling 2 hoursrest for 1 hours ,but 1times.
January is a course of treatment .Nerve root type cervical spondylosis patients ,most can be cured by traction .Traction after treatment ,symptom relief ,still need to use fixed collar .
Figure 1 withfigure 2 cervicaltraction cervical traction cervical spondylosis should not use massage installation and manipulative treatment .For massage manipulation ,is appropriate is gentle ,avoid strong rotation manipulation .
Because patients with unstable cervical spine, powerful technique can cause cervical subluxation or dislocation or even causing quadriplegia .Operation treatment: if the diagnosis ,the non operation treatment is invalid or spinal cord compression shall conduct operation .
In the past, have to do with decompressive laminectomy decompression ,but due to small poor effect, therefore some people from the posterior resection of vertebral lamina open spinal cord extirpation of prominence ,but pull cord often make symptoms worse ,even lead to irreversible paraplegia .
Since 60 time, begin discectomy and interbody fusion ,and achieved good results .Anterior resection operation can not only prominent, but also make the vertebral fusion can reduce recurrence ,the original osteophyte will gradually absorb .
Operation method is the patient supine ,the shoulder pillow ,neck left or right side of transverse incision on the sternocleidomastoid muscle in the internal carotid artery and thyroid between the direct vertebral body ,with the needle in should be resected in intervertebral disc ,and take bed sheet positioning ,using bone knife ,drill or saw the intervertebral disc and the upper and lower part of vertebral body resection ,always to see the posterior longitudinal ligament or epidural ,and forceps or curette will try to clear the trailing edge of the osteophyte ,then take ilium bone graft operation to do ,after the collar or cast immobilization ,general 2 ~March, operation for cervical plexus block anesthesia for awake patients or below ,and is not easy to cause the nerve root or spinal cord injury ( Figure 3 ).
Fig 3 cervical spondylosisanterior incision diagram cervical disease etiology study in elderly people ,according to statistics in the neck in 5 ~ 6hairdisease accounted for 70% ,followed by neck 6 neck 4,5and7 cervicalthoracic 1.
Pathological changes of cervical spondylosis the basic pathological changes of intervertebral disc degeneration .Located on the head and cervical thoracic ,cervical intervertebral disc under the loading condition to do frequent activities ,susceptible to more subtle trauma and the strain and the incidence of .
The main pathological change is :early for cervical intervertebral disc degeneration ,the nucleus pulposus to reduce the water content and fiber ring fiber swelling ,thickening ,followed by glass Li degeneration ,or even rupture .
Degeneration of cervical intervertebral disc ,pressure resistance and resistance to traction performance reduction .When subjected to gravity and skull head chest muscles between the pulling effect ,degeneration of the intervertebral disc can be localized or widespread aptitude around carina, enable the disc space narrowing ,facet overlapped ,dislocation ,as well as the foramina of the longitudinal size small .
Because the intervertebral disc pulling resistance is weak, when the cervical spine ,between adjacent vertebrae stability reduction and intervertebral instability ,the increased activity of the vertebral body and vertebral had mild slippage ,and the rear facet ,uncovertebral joints and laminectomy bone hyperplasia ,yellow ligament and the ligament degeneration ,cartilage and ossification change .
Due to cervical disc around the bulge, the surrounding tissues ( such as the anterior ,posterior longitudinal ligament ) and vertebral periosteum lifted ,and in the vertebral body and prolapse of lumbar intervertebral disc and raised to form a gap between the ligament tissue ,called &quot ;ligament disc gap &quot ;,which organized the fluid accumulation ,plus micro damage shape of bleeding, the bloody fluid machine and calcification ,ossification ,in is the formation of osteophyte .
Centrum anteroposterior ligament relaxation ,and the instability of the cervical spine ,more traumatized opportunity ,make osteophyte increases gradually .Osteophyte with eventration of the annulus ,posterior longitudinal ligament and due to trauma caused by reaction of edema or fibrous scar tissue ,the equivalent of disc parts form a protrusion to the vertebral and internal mixture, may on spinal nerve or spinal cord compression effect .
The uncovertebral joint osteophytes can backwards into the foraminal compression of the nerve root and vertebral artery .Anterior vertebra osteophyte usually does not cause symptoms ,but the literature also has this anterior osteophyte affect swallowing or cause hoarseness report .
Spinal cord and nerve root compression ,beginning is only functional changes ,if not timely relieve pressure ,gradually can produce irreversible change .So if the non operation treatment is ineffective, the timely operation treatment ( Figure 1 ).
Fig 1 cervical bone and joint degeneration of adjacent tissue of extruded fiber ring — lateral and centr
al cyanosis of nerve root and spinal degeneration protrusion extrusion the clinical manifestations of disease symptoms be the most changeful ,thus causing diagnostic difficulty .
Age of onset is generally 40 years old of above,age is lighter rare .Slow onset, didn attract attention ,only neck discomfort ,some performance for the &quot stiff neck ,often ;&quot ;after a period of time ,gradually show upper extremity pain radiation gradually .
Upper cervical spine lesions can cause back pain ,neck pillow ,dizziness ,tinnitus ,nausea, tonic ,hearing impairment ,visual impairment and episodes of coma and cataplexy ;in cervical osteophytes can produce 3 to5cervicalradicular pain and cervical rear muscles ,paraspinal muscle atrophy ,diaphragmatic also involved ;cervical lesion can produce the neck ,upper back and chest ,shoulder region area pain and neck 5 tothe chest ,the nerve root pain .
In the lower cervical spine lesions can be compression of the spinal cord ,produce paralysis .Semmes and Murphy in the operation of posterior longitudinal ligament had stimulation or annulus can cause of scapular medial ,posterior and anterior thoracic pain ,some people will be in operation of procaine blocking nerve root after and pull it apart ,compression of the prominence of the posterior longitudinal ligament ,also can cause the scapula ,shoulder ,occipital ,the inner edge the neck and anterior chest wall pain .
If there is no fiber ring and posterior longitudinal ligament rupture ,less pain and is more obscure, indicating that these symptoms and nerve root .As the narrative convenience, will be divided into the nerve root type cervical vertebra disease ,spinal cord ,and sympathetic nerve type of vertebral artery type .
However, in clinical can often be seen on all types of symptoms and signs are doped mixed type .( a ) the nerve root type this is occurring in the cervical spine posterolateral projection irritation or compression caused by cervical spinal nerve root ,the highest incidence ,accounting for about 60%of cervical spondylosis .
Neck and occipital cervical shoulder paroxysmal or persistent pain or pain .The involvement of the cervical spinal nerve along the traveling direction of a burning or knife like pain ,or electric shock or needles tingling ,when the neck or the abdominal pressure increases ,exacerbation of symptoms .
At the same time the upper limb was heavy and weak phenomenon .The neck has varying degrees of stiffness or pain, torticollis deformity ,muscle tension ,limitation of activity .The involvement of the cervical spinal nerve in its corresponding transverse process below the outlet and the adjacent spinous processes have tenderness .
Brachial plexus traction test positive ,foraminal compression test ( also known as cervical test ) positive ( Figure 1 ).In addition ,the involvement of the innervation zone skin sensory impairments, atrophy of muscle and tendon reflexes change ( Figure 2 ).
Fig 1 cervical vertebra diseasewith clinical examination ( 1)brachial plexus traction test ;( 2)neck extensor neck pressure test ;( 3)a neck pressure test of the 2 cervical ganglion segment distribution within the skin :Front :rear (two ) spinal cord type because of the prominence of spinal cord compression caused by, clinical manifestations of spinal cord compression ,with varying degrees of paralysis of limbs ,accounts for about 10 ~ 15%.
The symptoms are more complex ,mainly for limb numbness ,burning sensation ,soreness ,stiffness, weakness and other symptoms ,and occurred in lower limbs ,and to the development of upper extremity ;but also the first place in the side of upper or lower limbs .
In addition still have a headache ,dizziness or urine symptoms such as abnormal .The unilateral spinal compression :can appear classic Brown-Sequard syndrome ( Brown-s e quard Syndrme ) .
The spinal cord bilateral compression :early symptoms to sensory disorders mainly ,but also to movement disorders primarily ,later as much .The latter showing different degrees of upper motor neurons or nerve tract damage in spastic paralysis ,such as limb is not flexible ,awkward gait, walking instability ,even be completely bedridden ,urinate cannot from solution .
Physical examination can be found in limbs muscle tension ,muscle weakness ,tendon reflexes hyperfunction ,shallow reflex disappears ,pathological reflexes such as Hoffmann ,Babinski and other positive signs, ankle clonus and patellar clonus positive .
Sensory disturbance level is often associated with lesion segment is not consistent and lack of regularity .The addition of thoracic lumbar zonesthesia also is often the chief complaint .Table 1 cervical nerveroot compression symptoms and signs of nerve root disc symptom changes of cervical muscle and reflection of 3 neck 2~ 3the back of the neckskin numbness ,ear and mastoid pain ,greater occipital nerve tenderness clinical cannot be found ,except for electromyography neck 4 neck 3~ 4neck backnumbness ,pain along .
Scapular muscle radiation ,which can sometimes be radiation to the chest without discovery ,unless do electromyography neck 5 neck 4 to5 painalong the neck side radiating to the shoulder ,upper numb ( deltoid axillary nerve distribution area ) sometimes lateral upper arm and forearm also ,but the hand without affecting the upper extremity and shoulder extensor weakness, especially in the more than 90 degrees the deltoid muscle atrophy ,areflexia ,changes of cervical 6neck 5to 6pain radiating to theupper arm and forearm lateral to the thumb and index finger .
The tip of the thumb or the first dorsal interosseous muscle is numb to the humeral head two myasthenia gravis ,triceps brachii – two decreased reflexes neck 7 neck 6to 7pain radiating to theforearm in the middle ,middle finger ,ring finger but shows are also often the scapula pain ,the inner edge and the pectoralis major muscle tenderness of humeral head three three myasthenia gravis ,brachial biceps reflex decrease ,wrist and finger force strong neck 8 neck 71 chestpain radiating to the inner side of the forearm ,the ring finger and the ring finger ,numbness, but rarely in the wrist above triceps brachii – three and small hand muscle weakness ,no reflection of change ( three) vertebral artery type this is prominence compression of the vertebral artery induced by cyclophosphamide ,intervertebral disc lateral osteophyte ,the Zygapophyseal joint in front of osteophyte ,and after joint instability can also be due to subluxation of cervical sympathetic nerve stimulation and reflective artery spasm ,accounts for about 10~ 15%of cervical spondylosis .
Simple compression may not cause symptoms ,need associated with atherosclerosis ,vertebral artery insufficiency symptoms have episodes of vertigo ,nausea ,vomiting and other symptoms in the head ,each extension or rotation of the head to a position there, and when the head is turned away from the bearing when symptoms disappeared .
On the rotation of the head ,the patient felt a sudden limb weakness and fall ,fall is mostly clear ,patients often can be summed up the attack position .The brain stem symptoms include numbness ,paresthesia ,holding ground ,contralateral hemiparesis .
In addition there are hoarseness ,aphonia ,dysphagia ,ophthalmoplegia ,blurred vision ,narrow field of vision ,diplopia and Horner syndrome ( Figure 3 ).Fig 3 vertebral arterydue to a herniated disc and compression ( four) sympathetic type cervical spinal nerve roots ,spinal membrane ,facet joint
capsule on the sympathetic nerve fibers are stimulated by .
Symptoms include dizziness ,headache ,walk blurred vision ,hearing ,swallowing difficulties ,arrhythmia and sweating disorders .There is someone that is due to vertebral artery wall caused by the nerve is stimulated ,can also be a vertebral artery intermittent flow change ,stimulate arterial peripheral nerve induced by .
This type of diagnostic difficulties ,often subject to therapy after successful testing is required to make the diagnosis . a auxiliary examination ,cervical test check test check of cervical spondylosis : physical examination ,without using the apparatus ,which comprises :1flexionturn neck test :allows patients to the neck flexion ,rotation to the left and right activity .
Such as cervical spine pain ,showed cervical facet degenerative change .2 Spurlingtest ( capping test ) :the patients head to the affected side ,check the left palm on the head ,with his right fist at left back ,limb pain or numbness is radioactive ,said power passes downwardly into the intervertebral foramen is small, a damage ;for radicular pain seriously ,check with both hands overlap on the head ,under pressure ,can induce or exacerbate symptoms .
When the patient in a neutral position or posture when pressurized test positive called Jackson head test positive .In 3 patients withbrachial plexus traction test :bow ,check one walking in patients with head and neck ,the other hand limb wrist ,as opposite to the direction of sliding ,see whether patients felt pain radiation or numbness ,this is called a Eaten test .
At the same time as the pulling force of limb for rotation movement ,it is called a Eaten strengthen test .4 upper limb extension test :check the hand come to contralateral shoulder fixed ,another hand in the wrist ,and gradually make it backwards ,was extended shape ,so as to increase to the cervical nerve root traction ,if the affected limb radiation pain ,suggest that cervical nerve root or brachial plexus compression or injury with .
In two ,cervical spondylosis a radiographic examination of normal males above 50 years of age ,women over the age of 60 is about 90%the presence of cervical vertebral bone .The X-ray changes, do not have clinical symptoms .
Now with cervical disease related to X-ray see described as following: 1,a :with or without pivot ring joint dislocation ,fracture of odontoid process or missing .Transverse process of the seventh cervical vertebra is too long ,there is no cervical rib .
Uncovertebral joints and vertebra gap has widened or narrowed .Three ,lateral :(a ) the change of cervical curvature :straight hair ,physiological protrusion disappear or reverse bending .
( two) :abnormal activity in cervical hyperextension and lateral flexion extension radiographs ,can see the intervertebral disc of the elasticity change .( three) :vertebral osteophyte and close to the disc part can generate the osteophyte and ligament calcification .
( four) :intervertebral space narrowing of intervertebral disc nucleus pulposus herniation can cause ,the water content of intervertebral discs to reduce the occurrence of fibrosis and thinning ,performance in the X-ray films for intervertebral space narrowing .
( five) subluxation and intervertebral foramina smaller :degeneration of intervertebral disc ,lumbar stability is low, vertebral subluxation occurs often ,or called the slipped vertebral .
( six) item ligamentum calcification :item ligamentum calcification is one of the typical lesions of cervical spondylosis .In four ,she left oblique spine oblique film ,mainly used to observe the foraminal size as well as the uncovertebral joint hyperosteogeny .
In five ,cervical electromyographic examinations of cervical disease and cervical disc herniation of EMG is due to either cervical vertebra disease or cervical disc herniation can cause nerve root of prolonged pressure denaturation, thus losing the innervated muscle inhibition .
Thus, loss of innervation of muscle fibers in vivo ,since small amounts of acetylcholine stimulation ,can generate spontaneous contraction .Thus ,on one or both sides of upper limb muscles in fiber potentials ,occasionally appeared a few beam fibrillation potential .
Small force of contraction ,polyphasic potentials of normal ,do not appear tremendous potential .Big muscle contraction ,was completely in spoiled .Motor unit potentials of mean time and average potentials of normal .
Amplitude of 1 ~2 mv.The etiology of cervical intervertebral disc degeneration caused by wide ,bone hyperplasia .Damage to the nerve root range is wider, emergence of denervated muscles are more .
In lesions of advanced and longer duration of patients ,in the active self contraction ,can appear the wave number decreases and the amplitude decreased .And cervical disc herniation often as a single disc, the change to the side of the upper extremity, denervated muscles showed segmental distribution range .
In six ,cervical vertebra disease CT CT already in the diagnosis of vertebral arch dysraphism ,osteoporosis ,vertebral storm breaking fracture ,vertebral ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament ,and stenosis ,spinal cord tumors caused by vertebral pipe to expand or destruction of bone ,bone density measurements to estimate the degree of osteopenia .
In addition ,the sectional image can clearly see the dural sheath outside the soft tissue and the subarachnoid space .It can correctly diagnose the intervertebral disc herniation, nerve fibroma .
Spinal cord or medullary cavity disease ,for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of cervical disease has a certain value . A ,prevention of cervical disease prevention ( a ) read about cervical spondylosis of the book, master the use of scientific means of prevention and treatment of disease .
( two) optimism ,establish and disease was thought difficult compete ,cooperate with medical treatment ,reduce recurrence .( three) strengthen the neck shoulder muscle exercise ,in the work or in my spare time, the head and the pairs of upper limb flexion, and rotation motion ,can alleviate fatigue ,and develops the muscles ,toughness enhancement ,thus beneficial to cervical spine stability ,reinforced neck to neck suddenly change ability (four ) to avoid high pillow bad sleep habits ,so that the head pillow cervical spine flexion, increased stress ,have accelerated the cervical degeneration may .
( five) note that the shoulder and neck warm ,avoid neck weights ,to avoid excessive fatigue ,the car not to doze off .( six) early ,definitive treatment of neck and shoulder ,back soft tissue injury ,preventing the development of cervical disease .
( seven) the labor or walk to prevent flashover ,contusion .( eight) long desk workers ,should be regularly changing the head position ,time to do a neck and shoulder muscle exercise .
( nine) note the correct head ,neck ,shoulder ,back posture ,not a shrug ,talk ,read a book to positive gaze .To keep the spine straight .(ten ) considered Chinese walnut ,dogwood, raw land ,black sesame with kidney medullary reactive, reasonably small doses can play a strong physique, delaying renal function associated with joint degeneration .
In two ,cervical spondylosis patients with bed various beds each has its advantages and disadvantages, and with personal residence ,climate ,living habits ,economic situation .But from the cervical disease prevention perspective, should
choose in favor of stable disease ,helps maintain spinal balance bed .
Therefore ,to choose a place on the bed with an elastic mattress as well .It can be with spinal physiological curve change regulation .Three ,patients with cervical pillow pillow is to maintain the normal location of the main tools of head and neck .
The normal location refers to the physiological curve of head and neck section itself .Curve ensures that the weight of the external cervical muscle balance ,and maintain the vertebral and internal anatomy .
Thus an ideal pillow should be consistent with the physiological curvature of cervical requirements, soft texture ,good air permeability ,low to intermediate ,two ends of high ingot shape is the best .
Because this shape can be used to maintain the intermediate retraction of cervical physiological curvature ,head and neck can also play a role in a relatively fixed brake and ,may be reduced during sleep in head and neck abnormal activity .
Secondly ,the pillow core content is also very important ,commonly used are: cyclophos phamide buckwheat husk :cheap, good air permeability ,can adjust the height of the pillow .The cattail :soft texture ,good air permeability ,can be readily adjusted .
The mung bean shell :not only good ventilation, and cool ,if coupled with an appropriate amount of tea or mint is better ,but mainly for the summer .Others such as duck is also good, but the price is high .
Pillows should not be too high or too low ,do not sleep without any anxiety &quot ;&quot ;physiological position is preferred ,generally speaking ,the pillow is tall with 8 ~ 15cmis appropriate, or calculated according to the formula 🙁 shoulder – head width) / 2 .
Cervical vertebra pillow can also have preventive or therapeutic effects .In four ,cervical spondylosis patients with sleep posture for a good night posture ,it is necessary to maintain the whole spinal physiological curvature ,but also should make the patients feel comfortable ,can make muscle relaxation, easy fatigue recovery adjustment joint physiological state role .
According to this one good posture requirements should be to the chest, waist to maintain the natural curve ,double hip and knees were buckling shape ,this can relax muscles ,so ,the best take lateral decubitus or supine ,not prone .
In five ,cervical dumbbell medical gymnastics ( a ) elbow chest :feet apart shoulder ,two arms dumbbell drooping naturally ,flat shoulder elbow flexion ,while the back chest .Repeated 12 to 16 times.
( two) the attack :feet apart and hands holding a dumbbell shoulder, elbow flexion indulge in thoracic sides, upper body slightly to the left ,right to left anterior oblique strike ,around the turn of the 6~ 8 times,repeatedly .
( three) the lateral strike: feet apart and shoulder ,hands holding a dumbbell Qu Jinzhi chest sides, left hand holding a dumbbell to right side out ,around the turn of the 6~ 8 times,repeatedly .
( four) the top attack, two legs are apart and shoulder ,hands holding a dumbbell chest sides of Qu Shizhi ,his right hand holding a dumbbell upward attack, around the turn of the 6~ 8 times,repeatedly .
( five) arm abduction :feet apart and shoulder ,hands holding a dumbbell ptosis ,right upper straight from front to lift, around the turn of 6~ 8 timesrepeated .( six) shrug :feet apart and rotation of shoulder, hands holding a dumbbell ptosis ,arms straight down ,two shoulder forced upward shrug ,two shoulders back and down swing ,repeated 12 to 16 times.
( seven ) two shoulder after a chest extension :feet apart and shoulder ,hands holding a dumbbell ptosis ,two shoulders straight external rotation ,two shoulder pieces, at the same time the chest ,repeated 12 to 16 times.
( eight) a straight arm swinging legs before and after :discrete ,hands holding a dumbbell ptosis ,left and right upper limbs extension and swing alternately ,repeat 6 ~ 8 times,two legs interchange station positioning devices ,swing at the same time 6~ 8 times.
( nine) head lateral flexion :feet apart and shoulder ,hands holding a dumbbell ptosis ,head and neck left flexion ,maximum range ,then to the right side is rotated to a maximum range of about ,alternately ,repeated 6 to 8 times.
( ten) head flexor back :feet apart and shoulder ,hands holding a dumbbell ptosis ,head and neck flexion ,as far as possible for maximum range ;head and neck back up to the maximum range ,repeat 6 ~ 8 times.
( eleven) head rotation :feet apart and shoulder ,hands holding a dumbbell ptosis .Head and neck along the clockwise direction of rotation for a week ,then counterclockwise rotation ,repeat 6 ~ 8 times.
More action should be gentle ,spins it differs from man to man. Every day can be 1 ~ 2 times. the majority of patients with cervical spondylosis of the cervical spine outcomes are generally from an acute episode to alleviate ,to attack ,to ease rules .
The majority of patients with cervical spondylosis good prognosis ;nerve root type cervical vertebra disease prognosis is a good prognosis ,the numbness type ,atrophic is poorer ,root pain type between two between ;vertebral artery type of cervical spondylosis with multiple in the middle age ,the mental effect is more serious ,the physical effect ,some patients with vertebral artery type because of the vertebral – basilar artery insufficiency ,formed system crossed hemiplegia ,or quadriplegia ,cervical spondylotic myelopathy in patients with physical damage more serious, if not active treatment ,caused lifelong disability ,but little effect on mental .